English, option 3 (PERSONAL COMPUTERS)

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I. Rewrite the following sentences containing independent participial. Analyze and determine the type of the subordinate clause. Put in writing the proposals in the Russian language.

1. Money has a number of functions with medium of exchange being the principal function.

2. John looked through the window, his glance travelling towards the bridge.

3. The work being finished, the two girls went into the shop.

4. Just now, with the harvest coming on, everything looks its richest.

5. We began to talk, but my attention distracted by my surroundings, I took small notice of him.

II. Rewrite the following sentences containing predictive gerundive turnover. Put in writing the proposals in the Russian language.

1. I insist on your making the boy behave himself.

2. What is the real reason for his behaving in such a strange way?

3. Thank you for your letting me know about this fact.

4. We are tired of your complaining.

5. The child was afraid of his friend, being punished instead of him.

III. Rewrite the following sentences containing infinitive turnover. Determine the type of infinitive turnover. Put in writing the proposals in the Russian language.

1. For me to hear him was disturbing.

2. He had said enough for me to be alarmed.

3. She believed him to have left for San Francisco.

4. The practice has been found to require new capital investments.

5. I´d love you to come with me too.

IV. Rewrite the following conditional sentences. Determine the type of conditional offers, move the proposals written in Russian.

1. If it had not been so cold yesterday we might have gone to the skating-rink.

2. If he could ski he would not have stayed in town when we went to the woods.

3. I could have lended you money, yesterday if you had asked me for it.

4. If I were you, I would have told him the truth long ago.

5. Unless entirely reliable, information can not make a basis for sound decisions.

Additional information

V. writing Read and translate the following text.


Personal computers are also called microcomputers or home computer. The most compact are called laptops. They are portable and work on built-in batteries.

Personal computers are designed for use at homes, schools, and offices. At home they can be used for home management (balancing the family finances, for exam¬ple) and for playing computer games, watching films or listening to music. Schoolchildren can use computers for doing their homework and many schools now have computers for independent learning and computer-literacy studies. In the office personal computers may be used for word processing, bookkeeping, storage and handling of necessary information.

Personal computers were made possible by two tech¬nical innovations in the field of microelectronics: the integrated circuit, or IC, which was developed in 1959 and the microprocessor that first appeared in 1971. The IC permitted the miniaturization of computer-memory circuits, and the microprocessor reduced the size of a computer´s CPU to the size of a single silicon chip.

Because a CPU calculates, performs logical opera¬tions, contains operating instructions, and manages data flows, a complete microcomputer as a separate system was designed and developed in 1974.

In 1981, IBM Company offered its own microcomputer model, the IBM PC that became a necessary tool for al¬most every business. The PC´s use of a 16-bit microproc¬essor initiated the development of faster and more pow¬erful personal computers, and its use of an operating system that was available to all other computer makers led to a standardisation of the industry.

In the mid-1980s, a number of other developments were especially important for the growth of personal com¬puters. One of these was the introduction of a powerful 32-bit CPU capable of running advanced operating sys¬tems at high speeds.

New voice-controlled systems are now available, and users are able to use the words and syntax of spoken language to operate their personal computers.


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