English, version 2 (Market economies)

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Задание 1. Прочтите текст. Выпишите из текста английские эквиваленты данных ниже словосочетаний.
Market economies
In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy; the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities.
Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible. In a free market individual people are free to pursue their own interests. They can become millionaires, for example.
Not surprisingly there are also problems. Some goods would be underpurchased if the government did not provide free or subsidized supplies. Examples of this type of good and service are health and education. There are other goods and services, such as defence and policing, that are impossible to supply individually in response to consumer spending.
In a market economy there might be minimal control on working conditions and safety standards concerning products and services. It is necessary to have large-scale government intervention to pass laws to protect consumers and workers.
Some firms produce goods and then advertise heavily to gain sufficient sales.
Firms have to have confidence in future sales if they are to produce new goods and services. At certain times they tend to lack confidence and cut back on production and the development of new ideas. This decision, when taken by many firms, can lead to a recession. A recession means less spending, fewer jobs and a decline in the prosperity of the nation.

- процветание нации;
- управление экономикой;
- широкомасштабное вмешательство правительства;
- в ответ на ...;
- принимать законы;
- автоматически изменяться (приспосабливаться);
- быть конкурентоспособным;
- частное предпринимательство;
- частная собственность на средства производства;
- частный капитал;
-дополнительный доход (излишек дохода), который можно вложить (инвестировать) в новое дело (бизнес);
- получить наибольшую возможную прибыль;
-добиться достаточного объема продаж;
- быть уверенным в …;
- не хватает уверенности в …;
- условия работы;
- нормы техники безопасности;

Задание 2. Напишите синонимы к выделенным словам:
At first view; in response to; new advanced products.

Задание 3. Переведите предложения, определив функцию инфинитива: а) определение; b) обстоятельство; с) дополнение d) часть сказуемого.
1. Consumers try to spend more on products and services, which are favoured.
2. The task of the market is to make products attractive to the people.
3. No planners have to be employed.
4. To meet changing demands production in a market system alters very quickly.

Задание 4. Переведите предложения, определив функцию герундия: a) подлежащее; b) обстоятельство; с) дополнение d) часть сказуемого.
1. Advertising stimulates consumer demand.
2. The Internet provides almost unlimited resources for improving your English and learning more about business.
3. The purpose of a market system is avoiding serious social and economic problems.
4. The private firm is interested in making more profits.

Задание 5. Выпишите из текста сложноподчиненные предложения. Определите в них тип придаточного предложения. Предложения переведите на русский язык.

Задание 6. Переведите письменно текст “Market economies” на русский язык.

Additional information

Задание 7. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:
1.What is a market economy?
2. What is the main difference between a market economy and a planned economy?
3.3 What are the advantages of a market economy?
4.What are the disadvantages of a market economy?
5.What type of economy is in Russia now?

Задание 8. Выпишите предложения, соответствующие содержанию текста:
1.A market economy faces a number of problems.
2. It is characterized by private ownership and initiative with a relative absence of government involvement.
3. In a market economy people have no income.
4. The state intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence.
5.The government and the private sector are closely related

Задание 9. Выберите вариант, который считаете правильным. Предложения запишите.
1.This text is about:
a)a planned economy
b)a market economy
c)a mixed economy
2.Such a system includes:
3.Firms want:
4.A recession is a result of:
a)the doubt of a private firm
b)the doubt of a bank
c)the doubt of an individual
5. The government can intervene in the economy:
a)to supply some services
b)to plan ahead
c) to produce enough goods and services

Задание 10. Составьте план текста по ключевым словам.
Задание 11. Раскройте пункты вашего плана с помощью простых предложений.


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