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I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания -s.
1. The scientific and technological equipment brought great changes in people’s life and work.
2. The passengers were informed of the flight’s delay.
3. Nowadays, London’s transport moves only four km faster than in 1912.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be
1. There was some engine trouble and the driver asked the passengers to get off the bus.
2. At the railway station there are announcements boards that inform passengers when and to what track the train will arrive.
3. In April 2008, there was a 300 km traffic jam on the N4 motorway (the main road from London to Wales) at the end of the Easter holiday.

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
1. At this railway station, the stops of the trains last only five minutes.
2. Such engineers as Frolov, Yartzev and Polsunov made great contribution to the development of railway transport in Russia.
3. If you help me, I shall repair the engine in an hour.

IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
1. Box cars are used for the transportation of goods which require protection against rain.
2. The first passenger cars were lighted by candles, later candles were replace by oil and gas lamps.
3. After the reconstruction of the railway, the speed of train will be increased and the carrying capacity of the line will be raised.

V. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.
1. Railway transport is one of the cheapest ways of carrying freight over long distances.
2. The continuous welded rails provide a smoother movement of trains at higher speeds.
3. If you want to get somewhere as quickly as possible the best way is to travel by air.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.
1. The railway line that has no long tunnels and bridges is (cheap) line.
2. Petrol is (expensive) than it was two years ago.
3. The railway became (important) means of transportation thanks to the in vention of the steam locomotive.

VII. Перепишите и переведите текст.
The St. Petersburg-Moscow Mainline is the oldest and the most outstanding railway in Russia. The project of this railway was proposed by P.P. Melnikov. According to his project “chugunka” was planned as a doubletrack line, 664 km long, with the feet gauge (now the standard), steampowered. The speed of passenger and freight trains was supposed to be 34.4 km and 16 km respectively.
The construction began in 1843 and lasted 8 years. From the very beginning, the builders faced many hardships because of severe climatic and difficult geological conditions. Hundreds of kilometers of track were laid down through forests and marshes, many rivers were crossed. The line is virtually straight and level. 185 bridges and 19 viaducts were built to make the line as straight as possible. There is a legend that the route of the railway was chosen by the Tzar Nikolay I, who drew a straight line between the two cities on the map and ordered this line to be the route of the railway. However, the fact is that the construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work, a great part of which was done by P.P. Melnikov himself.

Additional information

All the component parts of the track, bridges and viaducts were produced at Russian plants by using only domestic materials, including timber for sleepers and cast iron for rails.
One has to give credit* to the first railway builders, who laid the track in extremely difficult conditions. Nobody took care of the workers and nobody paid attention to their working conditions. People lived in “shalashes” or dugouts; ate often tainted food; worked from dawn till sunset, often in water up to their knees and their main tools were spades, picks, axes, wheelbarrows and horse-drawn carts. The cruel exploitation of the workers was exposed by Nekrasov in his famous poem “The Railway”.
The railroad was officially opened for traffic on November 1, 1851. The first train departed from St. Petersburg at 11.15 and arrived in Moscow 21 hours 45 minutes later. There were 17 passengers in the first-class cars, 63 – in the second-class cars and 112 – in the third-class cars. The speed of the first trains was 40 km/h but two years later, it was increased up to 60 km/h. It was the world’s record in the speed of passenger trains.

Notes: one has to give credit – нужно отдать должное

VIII. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы: It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.
1. The Trans-Siberian Railway is the oldest railway in Russia.
2. P.P. Melnikov made the project of the St. Petersburg-Moscow mainline.
3. It was a single-track line.
4. This line had many curves and gradients.
5. The construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying
6. All the materials for the construction were imported from Britain.
7. Rails were made of cast iron.
8. The railway was opened for traffic in 1851.
9. The first train departed from Moscow at midnight.
10. The train consisted of first-class cars only.


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