English (Why do people buy what they buy?)

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Part I
Why do people buy what they buy?
To understand better why consumers buy as they do, many marketers turn to behavioral sciences for help.
Specific consumer behaviors vary a great for different products and from one taget market to the next. In today's global markets, the variations are countless. That makes it impractical to try to catalog all the detailed publications for every different market situation. For example, how and why a given consumer buys a specific brand of shampoo may be very different from how that same consumer buys motor oil; and different consumers in different parts of the world may have very different reactions to the same product. But there are general behavioral principles - frameworks - that marketing managers can apply to learn more about their specific target markets.
Most economists assume that consumers are economic men - people who know all the facts and logically compare choices in terms of cost and value received to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money. A logical extension of the economic-man theory led us to look at consumer spending patterns. This approach is valuable because consumers must at least have income to buy everything they want. So most consumers do not have enough income to buy everything they want. So most consumers want their money to stretch are: .....

Exercises to text
1. Write true (T) or false (F) next to the statements below. If the sentence is not right - correct it:
1. To better understand why consumers buy as they do, many marketers turn to behavioral sciences for help.
2. It is rather practical to try to catalog all the detailed possibilities for every different market situation.
3. Economic men are people who know all facts and logically compare choices in terms of cost and value received to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.
4. A product that one person sees as a good value is of no interest to someone else.
5. Marketing managers must not be alert to new ways to appeal to economic needs - if the customers need to buy something, they will do it anyway.

2. Answer the following questions:
a) according to the text
1. What behavioral sciences do you know?
2. Why is it impossible to catalog all consumer behaviors?
3. Who are economic men?
4. What is the meaning of the economic-man theory? What guides most consumers behavior?
5. What are major economic needs?
b) give your own idea
6. How do companies try to attract customers?
7. What do you think can affect a person's buying behavior?
8. Do you agree that psychological variables, social influences, and purchase situation all affect a person's buying behavior?
9. What influences your personal purchase decisions?
10. What is more important for you: price or quality?

3. Fill the blanks with the word combinations from the table:
1.Speaking about ____________you should always remember about the income. 2. Today it is not possible and practical to _____________the consumers behavior. 3. The first step in starting the production of a new product is to identify your______________. 4. The _______________guide most consumers behavior. 5. The ____________ of the product influences the purchase decision.
target market, economic needs, spending patterns, 'economic value', catalog

4. Paraphrase the underlined words using words from the box:
1.This way of solving the problem is the most efficient. 2. The are uncountable possibilities for consumers to satisfy their needs. 3. To be a good shop-assistant you should try to understand consumers actions. 4. Very often when I come to the shop my feelings

Additional information

5. Pass the following questions in indirect speech:
The police officer asked: ...
1) "What's your name?"
2) "Did you see the robbers?"
3) "What were they wearing?"
4) "How do you think they got in?"
5) "What did they take?"
6) "Has this ever happened before?

6. Transfer the following sentences in indirect speech:
Mrs Lane told her babysitter ...:
1) "Do not answer the door to anyone! "
2) "Phone me if there's an emergency!"
3) "Do not let the children eat any sweets!"
4) "Send the children to bed at 9 o'clock!"
5) "Give the children a bath before they go to bed!"
6) "Do not take the dog into the children's bedroom!"
7) "Close all the windows!"
8) "Put the toys away in the cupboard!"

7. Pass the following sentences in indirect speech
1) "I've ordered a pizza for dinner," he said.
2) "I will come tomorrow and fix the tap," the plumber said to them.
3) "This is the best holiday I've ever had," she said to her friend.
4) "Why did you say that to me?" She asked him.
5) "Do not speak to your father like that," she said to them.
6) "Could you show me where the manager's office is?" He asked the secretary.
7) "Take your books with you," she said to her son.

8. Complete the conditional sentences of the first type:
1) If the dog _________ (keep) barking, the neighbours will complain.
2) The boss _________ (be) angry if you arrive late for work.
3) If you _________ (study) hard, you will pass your exam.
4) If we go by plane, it _________ (be) more expensive.
5) We will miss the plane if he _________ (come) late.
6) If you are a good girl, I _________ (buy) you some chocolate.

9. Make a conditional sentence of the first type, using the words in brackets:
1) (eat too much / put on weight);
2) (snow / make a snowman);
3) (be sunny / go for a picnic);
4) (rain / stay home);
5) (not work hard / lose job).

10. For each of the following situations, write conditional clauses of the second type, using an expression in the table:
call an ambulance run away walk to the nearest garage to get some
complain to the manager try to catch it ring the police
1) You find a fly in your soup. ____
2) You see a burglar breaking into your house. ___
3) You see a mouse in your kitchen. ____

11. Expand the brackets in the text, paying particular attention to conditional sentences of the third type:
John is in prison. If John 1) _________ (not / oversleep), he 2) ___ (not / be) late for work. If he 3) ____ (not / be) late for work, his boss 4) ___ (not / fire) him. If John 5) ________ (not / lose) his job, he 6) ___ (not / need) money and he 7) ___ (not / rob) the bank. If he 8) __ (not / rob) the bank, the police
12. Identify the following conditional sentences and put the verbs in brackets into the desired shape:
1) If it __________ (not / be) cold, they would not have lit the fire.
2) If she studied more, she __________ (be) a better student.
3) They __________ (not / see) the Queen if they had not visited London that day.

13. Fill in the blanks in the following dialog box using the can, could and be able to:
John: ________ you ski?
Dave: Yes, I ________. I went skiing last year and I ________ go down the learner's slope easily.
John: I ________ ski when I was younger but since I hurt my leg I ________.
Dave: Actually, I think ice-skating is much easier. I ________ ice-skating when I was five years old.
John: Really? I tried ice-skating once, I ________ stand up at all.

4. Fill in the blanks in the following dialog box using the can, may, could, must not and can not:
Jim: Mum, 1) ________ I go to the library?
Mother: Of course you 2) _____


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