"Sunny vegetary." This experience vegetariev, with detailed descriptions of the design and operation, construction drawings and projects.
Traditional greenhouse has three main problems. 1. A low standing sun (spring, fall, winter, morning and evening), in view of the strong reflection at acute angles to the greenhouse gets only 20-30% of the solar energy. 2. Huge heat losses through the coating and its inability to stock up inside the greenhouse lead to huge changes in temperature day and night. 3. Direct ventilation is required in the summer, it takes all the carbon dioxide (the main power plant!), Part of the nitrogen and all of the moisture vaporized leaves - hence the constant need for watering and fertilizing.
Vegetary solves all these problems.
Problem 1. vegetary constructed on a slope in the 15-20 °, natural or bulk, ramp to the south or south-east (Figure). At a rate of 4 to 5 meters is quite real. The roof is flat - glass, polycarbonate and better - that's where it really indispensable! Result: the sun falls perpendicularly, and reflection - almost zero. According to the authors, in comparison with conventional arched greenhouses, the arrival of the sun's energy is increased by 4-5 times, and in the morning, at night and in the winter - in the 18-21 times.
But that's not all. The back wall - the capital. Actually, this is a house wall or utility room. It is whitewashed, and ideally - papered mirror film. With a low sun it - reflector, almost doubling the rays hit the soil.
Himself slope of 15 ° latitude of Kiev increases in the winter rays absorption by 32%. Plus the flat roof and the screen. The lower the sun, the stronger the effect. Upon standing sun 20 ° twice as much energy is absorbed at 10 ° - tripled at 5 ° - four. Slope 25 ° greenhouse increases the absorption of low sun respectively 2,5-4-6 times.
Issues 2 and 3 resolved a graceful invention - a closed-cycle air and heat exchange.
Under the soil to a depth of 30-35 cm, 55-60 cm across from each other along the greenhouses are plastic (asbestos cement) of the tube (see figures). The lower ends of them brought to the surface and covered by debris netting. The upper (northern) ends are connected in a cross-manifold. From collector goes riser - riser padded wall in the capital. It goes on the roof, but not directly, but through adjusting the camera. The camera opens in a greenhouse at a height of 1.5 m. Above and below it is limited dampers, and the output of the greenhouse - fan. In the summer pritenyat roof clay or chalk, home exhaust fan power 15-20 watts normally serves two pipes with a diameter of 70-100 mm. If the pipe more, do more risers with fans.
On a sunny day, even in winter when the outside -10 ° C within vegetariya - + 30-35 ° C. The upper chamber flap closed. The fan sucks air into the pipe and blows it up (Figure). The air gives heat the soil. The cooled air is blown back into the greenhouse - and then heated. The day the soil warms up to 30 ° C and above - all soil becomes heat accumulator. It is stored as it lacks almost all night. At night, the fan continues to operate, supplying heat from the soil already in the air.
Several readers have noticed: it not better to direct the flow of the opposite - to suck the hot air from the top and swing down through the soil? It seems more logical. But the fact is that it will require a sharp increase in fan power and energy consumption. You've got to try.
In the last two decades, this system is widely used in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia. There is pumped warm air and soil, and in the stone floor, and collectors in pools, and even in the wall adjacent rooms.
Thus, without any heating, cold day at -10 ° and -15 ° C night in vegetarii keeps the temperature: daytime - + 18 °, night - + 12 ° C.
The main thing - good sealing coating. For comparison, a conventional greenhouse at the same time from 9 to 20.00 - above 10 ° C, with 12 to 16.00 -